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Need help with my writing homework on Long-Term Effects of the Over-Use of Antibiotics on Pathogen Resistance. Write a 1000 word paper answering; The antibiotics are typically used to contain bacteria infection in human beings and other domestic animals (Engelkirk et al., 2011). However, some of infections caused by the bacteria have been able to evade the use of antibiotics in both human and animals. This has been a key area of concern in the 21st century. This has complicated the treatment methods of diseases that were managed by the antibiotics in prior periods. Such diseases evading the use of antibiotics are proving difficult to diagnose to the health care providers. Moreover, it is difficult to treat the disease that has been able to evade the use of antibiotics. The resistance by the bacteria to the use of antibiotics has been through molecular changes to their genetic structure (Engelkirk et al., 2011). Once the resistance is acquired, it is then propagated to the offspring’s through exchange of genetic material. The modern form of resistance has resulted to the development of multiple drug resistant bacterial strains (Engelkirk et al., 2011). The subsequent use has resulted to multiple drug resistant organisms. The overuse of these drugs has resulted to ideal situations for the bacteria to survive and grow even when the antibiotics are available. This occurs through chromosomal mutation, and exchange of genetic material (Behera, 2010). This is due to lack of the drugs penetration. This mechanism of resistance is seen in Enterococcus species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Behera, 2010). The clear effects on the overuse of antibiotics are on penicillin resistance. Through overuse of penicillin, there has been the development of various strains of bacteria that are resistant to the drug. Penicillin was originally for the control of bacteria spread. The drug effects on bacteria were to inhibit the growth of the cell wall. After a long use of the drug, there was a recognition of several cases of resistance. Some bacteria managed to breakdown the penicillin while others were able to mimic the characteristics of the antibiotic (Behera, 2010). The staph bacteria developed a capacity of breaking the structure of the penicillin. This prompted the establishment of a new kind of penicillin called methicillin. However, resistance to the drug was also noted. The resistance prompted the production of different antibiotics. The continued overuse also helped other bacteria acquire branched neuropeptides (Behera, 2010). The neuropeptides prevented the penicillin from easily binding to the wall. Others bacteria were also able to rebuild their penicillin binding proteins that are the subject of the antibiotics. This helped the bacteria to survive even after the penicillin targeted the site. There are crucial factors that contributed to the development of resistance towards penicillin. The most common one was the availability of penicillin over the counter in the second half of the 20th century. This made it available to people without any form of prescription. There was also over prescription of the drug by the doctors. The continuous overuse of the drug helped in favouring and selection of the strain that developed resistance (Behera, 2010). The resistant strain developed through evolution and the property passed to the subsequent generation. Once the generation is developed, it is extremely difficult to treat and diagnose disease resulting from such strain. Moreover, it is expensive to treat diseases that result from different resistant strains. It has also been established that conditions resulting from multiple strain are difficult to cure. In addition, the overuse of antibiotics has led to increased water contamination, and propagation of antibiotic resistant organisms. This has led to increase waterborne and food borne infections by resistant bacteria (Saene et al., 2005).

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